The five-piece kit is the full entry-level kit and the most common configuration across all musical genres. A fusion kit will normally add a 14" tom, either a floor tom or a hanging tom on a stand to the right of the bass drum; in either case, making the tom lineup 10", 12" and 14". Having three toms enables drummers to have a low-pitched, middle-register and higher-pitched tom, which gives them more options for fills and solos.
Other kits will normally have 12" and 13" hanging toms plus either a 14" hanging tom on a stand, a 14" floor tom, or a 16" floor tom. For depths, see Tom-tom drum Modern tom-toms. In the s, it is very popular to have 10" and 12" hanging toms, with a 16" floor tom. This configuration is often called a hybrid setup. A second crash cymbal is common, typically an inch or two larger or smaller than the 16", with the larger of the two to the right for a right-handed drummer, but a big band may use crashes up to 20" and ride up to 24" or, very rarely, 26".
A rock kit may also substitute a larger ride cymbal or larger hi-hats, typically 22" for the ride and 15" for the hats. Most five-piece kits, at more than entry level, also have one or more effects cymbals. Adding cymbals beyond the basic ride, hi-hats and one crash configuration requires more stands in addition to the standard drum hardware packs. At the other extreme, many inexpensive, entry-level kits are sold as a five-piece kit complete with two cymbal stands , most often one straight and one boom, and some even with a standard cymbal pack, a stool, and a pair of 5A drum sticks.
In the s, digital kits are often offered in a five-piece kit, usually with one plastic crash cymbal triggers and one ride cymbal trigger. Fully electronic drums do not produce any acoustic sound beyond the quiet tapping of sticks on the plastic or rubber heads. The trigger-pads are wired up to a synth module or sampler. If the toms are omitted completely, or the bass drum is replaced by a pedal-operated beater on the bottom skin of a floor tom and the hanging toms omitted, the result is a two-piece " cocktail " lounge kit.
Such kits are particularly favoured in musical genres such as trad jazz , bebop , rockabilly and jump blues. Some rockabilly kits and beginners kits for very young players omit the hi-hat stand. In rockabilly, this allows the drummer to play standing rather than seated. Although these kits may be small with respect to the number of drums used, the drums themselves are most often normal sizes, or even larger in the case of the bass drum. Kits using smaller drums in both smaller and larger configurations are also produced for particular uses, such as boutique kits designed to reduce the visual impact that a large kit creates or due space constraints in coffeehouses, travelling kits to reduce luggage volume, and junior kits for very young players.
Smaller drums also tend to be quieter, again suiting smaller venues, and many of these kits extend this with extra muffling which allows quiet or even silent practice in a hotel room or bedroom. See also other acoustic instruments above. Another versatile extension becoming increasingly common is the use of some electronic drums in a mainly conventional kit. Sticks were traditionally made from wood particularly maple, hickory, and oak but more recently metal, carbon fibre and other exotic materials have been used for high market end sticks.
The prototypical wooden drum stick was primarily designed for use with the snare drum, and optimized for playing snare rudiments. Sticks come in a variety of weights and tip designs; 7N is a common jazz stick with a nylon tip, while a 5B is a common wood tipped stick, heavier than a 7N but with a similar profile, and a common standard for beginners. Numbers range from 1 heaviest to 10 lightest. The meanings of both numbers and letters vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, and some sticks are not described using this system at all, just being known as Smooth Jazz typically a 7N or 9N or Speed Rock typically a 2B or 3B for example.
Many famous drummers endorse sticks made to their particular preference and sold under their signature. Besides drumsticks, drummers will also use brushes and rutes in jazz and similar softer music. More rarely, other beaters such as cartwheel mallets known to kit drummers as "soft sticks" may be used. It is not uncommon for rock drummers to use the "wrong" butt end of a stick for a heavier sound; some makers produce tipless sticks with two butt ends. A stick bag is the standard way for a drummer to bring drumsticks to a live performance.
For easy access, the stick bag is commonly mounted on the side of the floor tom, just within reach of the drummer's right hand for a right-handed drummer. Drum muffles are types of mutes that can reduce the ring, boomy overtone frequencies, or overall volume on a snare, bass, or tom. Controlling the ring is useful in studio or live settings when unwanted frequencies can clash with other instruments in the mix.
There are internal and external muffling devices which rest on the inside or outside of the drumhead, respectively. Common types of mufflers include muffling rings, gels and duct tape, and improvised methods, such as placing a wallet near the edge of the head. Snare drum and tom-tom Typical ways to muffle a snare or tom include placing an object on the outer edge of the drumhead.
A piece of cloth, a wallet, gel, or fitted rings made of mylar are common objects. Also used are external clip-on muffles that work using the same principle. Internal mufflers that lie on the inside of the drumhead are often built into a drum, but are generally considered less effective than external muffles, as they stifle the initial tone, rather than simply reducing the sustain of it.
Bass drum Muffling the bass can be achieved with the same muffling techniques as the snare, but bass drums in a drum kit are more commonly muffled by adding pillows, a sleeping bag or another soft filling inside the drum, between the heads. Cutting a small hole in the resonant head can also produce a more muffled tone, and allows manipulation in internally placed muffling.
The Evans EQ pad places a pad against the batterhead and, when struck, the pad moves off the head momentarily, then returns to rest against the head, thus reducing the sustain without choking the tone. It interrupts contact between the stick and the head which dampens the sound even more. They are typically used in practice settings. Cymbals are usually muted with the fingers or hand, to reduce the length or volume of ringing e. Cymbals can also be muted with special rubber rings or with DIY approaches such as using duct tape.
Historical uses Muffled drums are often associated with funeral ceremonies as well, such as the funerals of John F. Kennedy and Queen Victoria. There are various types of stick holder accessories, including bags that can be attached to a drum and angled sheath-style stick holders, which can hold a single pair of sticks.
A sizzler is a metal chain or combination of chains that is hung across a cymbal, creating a distinctive metallic sound when the cymbal is struck similar to that of a sizzle cymbal. Using a sizzler is the non-destructive alternative to drilling holes in a cymbal and putting metal rivets in the holes. Another benefit of using a "sizzler" chain is that the chain can be removed and the cymbal will return to its normal sound in contrast, a cymbal with rivets would have to have the rivets removed.
Some sizzlers feature pivoting arms that allow the chains to be quickly raised from the cymbal, or lowered onto it, allowing the effect to be used for some songs and removed for others. As with all musical instruments, the best protection is provided by a combination of a hard-shelled case with padding such as foam next to the drums and cymbals. While most drummers use microphones and amplification in live shows in the s, so that the sound engineer can adjust and balance the levels of the drums and cymbals, some bands that play in quieter genres of music and that play in small venues such as coffeehouses play acoustically, without mics or PA amplification.
Small jazz groups such as jazz quartets or organ trios that are playing in a small bar will often just use acoustic drums. Of course if the same small jazz groups play on the mainstage of a big jazz festival, the drums will be mic'ed so that they can be adjusted in the sound system mix. A middle-ground approach is used by some bands that play in small venues; they do not mic every drum and cymbal, but rather mic only the instruments that the sound engineer wants to be able to control in the mix, such as the bass drum and the snare.
In "miking" a drum kit, dynamic microphones , which can handle high sound-pressure levels, are usually used to close-mic drums, which is the predominant way to mic drums for live shows. Condenser microphones are used for overheads and room mics, an approach which is more common with sound recording applications. Close miking of drums may be done using stands or by mounting the microphones on the rims of the drums, or even using microphones built into the drum itself, which eliminates the need for stands for these microphones, reducing both clutter and set-up time, as well as isolating them.
In some styles of music, drummers use electronic effects on drums, such as individual noise gates that mute the attached microphone when the signal is below a threshold volume. This allows the sound engineer to use a higher overall volume for the drum kit by reducing the number of "active" mics which could produce unwanted feedback at any one time. When a drum kit is entirely miked and amplified through the sound reinforcement system, the drummer or the sound engineer can add other electronic effects to the drum sound, such as reverb or digital delay.
Some drummers arrive at the venue with their drum kit and use the mics and mic stands provided by the venue's sound engineer. Other drummers bring their all of their own mics, or selected mics e. In bars and nightclubs, the microphones supplied by the venue can sometimes be in substandard condition, due to the heavy use they experience.
Drummers using electronic drums, drum machines, or hybrid acoustic-electric kits which blend traditional acoustic drums and cymbals with electronic pads typically use a monitor speaker, keyboard amplifier or even a small PA system to hear the electronic drum sounds. Even a drummer playing entirely acoustic drums may use a monitor speaker to hear her drums, especially if she is playing in a loud rock or metal band, where there is substantial onstage volume from huge, powerful guitar stacks.
Since the drum kit uses the deep bass drum, drummers are often given a large speaker cabinet with a 15" subwoofer to help them monitor their bass drum sound along with a full-range monitor speaker to hear the rest of their kit. Some sound engineers and drummers prefer to use an electronic vibration system, colloquially known as a " butt shaker " or "throne thumper" to monitor the bass drum, because this lowers the stage volume. With a "butt shaker", the "thump" of each bass drum strike causes a vibration in the drum stool; this way the drummer feels their beat on the posterior, rather than hears it.
A number of accessories are designed for the bass drum also called "kick drum". Ported tubes for the bass drum are available to take advantage of the bass reflex speaker design, in which a tuned port a hole and a carefully measured tube are put in a speaker enclosure to improve the bass response at the lowest frequencies. Bass drum pillows are fabric bags with filling or stuffing that can be used to alter the tone or resonance of the bass drum. A less expensive alternative to using a specialized bass drum pillow is to use an old sleeping bag.
Some drummers wear special drummer's gloves to improve their grip on the sticks when they play. Drumming gloves often have a textured grip surface made of a synthetic or rubber material and mesh or vents on the parts of the glove not used to hold sticks, to ventilate perspiration. In some styles or settings, such as country music clubs or churches, small venues, or when a live recording is being made, the drummer may use a transparent perspex or plexiglas drum screen also known as a drum shield to dampen the onstage volume of the drums.
A screen that completely surrounds the drum kit is known as a drum booth. In live sound applications, drum shields are used so that the audio engineer can have more control over the volume of drums that the audience hears through the PA system mix or to reduce the overall volume of the drums, as a way to reduce the overall volume of the band in the venue. In some recording studios, foam and fabric baffles are used in addition to or in place of clear panels. Drummers often bring a carpet, mats or rugs to venues to prevent the bass drum and hi-hat stand from "crawling" moving away on a slippery surface from the drum head striking the bass drum.
The carpet also reduces short reverberation which is generally but not always an advantage , and helps to prevent damage to the flooring or floor coverings. In shows where multiple drummers will bring their kits onstage over the night, it is common for drummers to mark the location of their stands and pedals with tape, to allow for quicker positioning of a kits in a drummer's accustomed position.
Bass drums and hi-hat stands commonly have retractable spikes to help them to grip surfaces such as carpet, or stay stationary on hard surfaces with rubber feet. Drummers use a variety of accessories when practicing. Metronomes and beat counters are used to develop a sense of a steady pulse. Drum muffling pads may be used to lessen the volume of drums during practicing. A practice pad , held on the lap, on a leg, or mounted on a stand, is used for near-silent practice with drumsticks.
In the s, these have largely been superseded by electronic drums, which can be listened to with headphones for quiet practice and kits with non-sounding mesh heads. Drummers use a drum key for tuning their drums and adjusting some drum hardware. Basic drum keys are divided in three types which allows tuning of three types of tuning screws on drums: square most used , slotted and hexagonal. Ratchet-type wrenches allow high-tension drums to be tuned easily. Spin keys utilizing a ball joint allow rapid head changing.
Torque-wrench type keys are available, graphically revealing the torque at each lug. Also, tension gauges, or meters, which are set on the head, aid drummers to achieve a consistent tuning. Drummers can tune drums " by ear " or, in the s, use a digital drum tuner, which "measures tympanic pressure" on the drumhead to provide accurate tuning. Drum kit music is either written down in music notation called "drum parts" , learned and played by ear, improvised, or some combination of some or all three of these methods.
Drum parts are most commonly written on a standard five-line staff. In , a special percussion clef is used, while previously the bass clef was used. However, even if the bass or no clef is used, each line and space is assigned an instrument of the kit, rather than to a pitch. In jazz, traditional music, folk music, rock music, and pop music, drummers are expected to be able to learn songs by ear from a recording or from another musician who is playing or singing the song and improvise.
The degree of improvisation differs in different styles. Jazz and jazz fusion drummers may have lengthy improvised solos in every song.
In rock music and blues, there are also drum solos in some songs, although they tend to be shorter than those in jazz. Drummers in all popular music and traditional music styles are expected to be able to improvise accompaniment parts to songs, once they are told the genre or style e. On early recording media until  such as wax cylinders and discs carved with an engraving needle, sound balancing meant that musicians had to be moved back in the room. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the instrument family, see Membranophone.
For the indie pop band, see The Drums. For other uses, see Drum disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section needs additional citations for verification. Main article: drum beat. Main article: drum fill. Main article: drum solo. Main article: grip percussion.
Main article: bass drum. Main article: snare drum. Main article: tom-tom drum. Main article: Ride cymbal. Main article: Hi-hat instrument. Main article: Crash cymbal. Main article: effects cymbal. Main article: Electronic drums. Main article: drum hardware. Main article: Drum stick. Main article: drum screen. Main article: drum key. Main articles: percussion notation and music improvisation.
Drum kit tuning Percussion instrument Rhythm section Electronic drum List of drum makers Drum machine. Retrieved 22 February Archived from the original on 28 September Retrieved 28 July Musical instruments. London: B. Batsford Ltd. Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 18 July Archived from the original on 21 May Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 28 October Jazz — From its Origins to the Present , p. London: Balafon Books. Star sets: Drum Kits of the Great Drummers. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Hal Leonard.
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Archived from the original on 30 June Archived from the original on 16 October The Percussive Arts Society. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 21 November Dodds' way of playing press rolls ultimately evolved into the standard jazz ride-cymbal pattern. Whereas many drummers would play very short press rolls on the backbeats, Dodds would start his rolls on the backbeats but extend each one to the following beat, providing a smoother time flow.
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The Electric Drum. Electronic and Computer Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 27 November Aug Archived from the original on 18 April Retrieved 10 May Archived from the original on 4 July Archived from the original on 31 December Archived from the original on 15 July Learning to play the drum: an experiential. Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 18 December Archived from the original on 11 September Retrieved 2 September Archived from the original on 22 January Drum beats and strokes.
Percussion instruments. List of percussion instruments. Drum kit Percussion section Percussion ensemble. Electronic drum Drum machine.
Also, everything has to be uploaded by midnight on the 30th of May. Two years later the government of Trinidad and Tobago declared August 1 a public holiday to mark the abolition of slavery. We also worked with timing and tempo playing exercises where we were alternating between series of note values that are closely adjacent, for instance one bar of eighth note triplets followed by a bar of sixteenth notes followed by quintuplets and so on. Matt is a very likeable and humorous guy who also gave me a lot of praise and found my level of playing quite high considering my lengthy break. Guide to basics: not all laundry machines are the same size.
Cymbal manufacturers List of drum manufacturers List of marimba manufacturers List of timpani manufacturers Classification of percussion instruments. Some tune the big drums lower, but unmiced, in the audience, the big drums sound like big drums when they are tuned higher, not flappy. To the drummer, a low tuned 16 or 18 sounds friggin great, but that sound dies in about 5 feet, and all that's left for the audience to hear is maybe attack and no tone. I've learned to get used to the higher tuned toms, and I'm glad I did because my drums sound phenomenal in the audience unmiced.
Once in a while I tune my practice set low, and I like it for about 10 minutes, but ultimately, I end up tuning them higher. You have to listen "through" the overtones.. Some guys focus on the overtones, when they should be overlooking them and focusing on the fundamental when tuning. Swiss Matthias Platinum Member. I've found that the larger the drum gets, the more important the tuning and interval of the reso head is in relation to the batter.
NerfLad Silver Member. As larryace said, tune higher than you might think. For example, on my 22 x 18 bass drum, the resonant side is tuned about as high as the resonant head of my 14" floor tom. Maybe even higher. The sound is not at all high or jazzy. It's just big and full. If you must know, it sounds like it's mostly putting out about 70 hz.
Which is of course not as absolutely low as it can go, but I mean, come on. A head has a range where the tension is right. Then it's matter if you want a high timbre or a lower one. I like batter and reso tuned to the same pitch. It ain't rocket science. NerfLad said:. Swiss Matthias said:. Often you don't actually look for great resonance on a 16x16, because it'll be too much. Instead, great tuning for lower toms means a great deep, rather short sound without having to muffle. Anthony Amodeo Guest. Too much for some is just right for others.
I tune my drums with basically the same principle by letting the size of the drum and its composition express where they are going to sound the best. So it doesn't matter if it's an 8" tom or an 18" tom. I can bend this a bit before going too far to either side of where the particular drum sounds best to my ears. Both the batter head and the resonant head will always get tuned to approximately the same pitch and each head will end up being in perfect tune with itself when finished.
Bull Gold Member. Vintage Emperors over Vintage Ambassadors. I tune the 18 first and work my way up.. Resos are about a fourth higher than the batters. I just tuned them today. I didn't use my Drum Dial but I would estimate the batters at 74 or This is my first 26" kick.
I've only had it for a year and I am changing it all the time. Of course, I didn't mean a high and resonant jazz tuning. For which in my experience 16" toms are rather the exception some use it though, i.