Peter Kramer. So Famous and So Gay. Jeff Solomon. Superhero Comics. Dr Chris Gavaler. The Cinema of Steven Soderbergh.
Andrew deWaard. Second Takes. Andrew Repasky McElhinney. Scott Combs. Melodrama in Contemporary Film and Television. Utopian Television. Michael Cramer. Karen Redrobe. Passionate Love and Popular Cinema. Erica Todd. Memory and Imagination in Film. Intimacy in Cinema. David Roche. Literature, Film, and Their Hideous Progeny. Julie Grossman. Screen Adaptation. Deborah Cartmell.
The Cambridge History of the Graphic Novel. Jan Baetens. Professor Hassan Melehy. Film Trilogies. Tex Avery. Floriane Place-Verghnes. The Tribe of Pyn. David Cowart. The Solaris Effect. Steven Dillon.
Drawn from the Classics. Stephen E. Adapting Poe. Children's Films. Ian Wojik-Andrews. Beat Drama. Deborah Geis. Wuthering Heights on Film and Television. Introduction to Film. Nick Lacey. The Documentary Film Reader. Jonathan Kahana. Jane M Gaines. Hollywood Remakes, Deleuze and the Grandfather Paradox. Translating Popular Film. Melodrama Unbound. Christine Gledhill. Catherine Dessinges. Television and Serial Adaptation. Shannon Wells-Lassagne. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long. The title should be at least 4 characters long.
Your display name should be at least 2 characters long. At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information.
You submitted the following rating and review. We'll publish them on our site once we've reviewed them.
Continue shopping. Item s unavailable for purchase. Please review your cart. You can remove the unavailable item s now or we'll automatically remove it at Checkout. Remove FREE. A film enthusiast is known as a cinephile or cineaste. A preview performance refers to a showing of a film to a select audience, usually for the purposes of corporate promotions, before the public film premiere itself. Previews are sometimes used to judge audience reaction, which if unexpectedly negative, may result in recutting or even refilming certain sections based on the audience response.
One example of a film that was changed after a negative response from the test screening is 's First Blood. After the test audience responded very negatively to the death of protagonist John Rambo , a Vietnam veteran , at the end of the film, the company wrote and re-shot a new ending in which the character survives. Trailers or previews are advertisements for films that will be shown in 1 to 3 months at a cinema. Back in the early days of cinema, with theaters that had only one or two screens, only certain trailers were shown for the films that were going to be shown there. Later, when theaters added more screens or new theaters were built with a lot of screens, all different trailers were shown even if they weren't going to play that film in that theater.
Film studios realized that the more trailers that were shown even if it wasn't going to be shown in that particular theater the more patrons would go to a different theater to see the film when it came out. The term "trailer" comes from their having originally been shown at the end of a film program. That practice did not last long because patrons tended to leave the theater after the films ended, but the name has stuck. Trailers are now shown before the film or the "A film" in a double feature program begins.
Trailers are created to be engaging and interesting for viewers. As a result, in the Internet era, viewers often seek out trailers to watch them. Of the ten billion videos watched online annually in , film trailers ranked third, after news and user-created videos. Teasers are used to get patrons excited about a film coming out in the next six to twelve months.
Teasers may be produced even before the film production is completed. Film is used for a range of goals, including education and propaganda. When the purpose is primarily educational, a film is called an " educational film ". Examples are recordings of academic lectures and experiments, or a film based on a classic novel.
They may also be works of political protest, as in the films of Andrzej Wajda , or more subtly, the films of Andrei Tarkovsky. The same film may be considered educational by some, and propaganda by others as the categorization of a film can be subjective. At its core, the means to produce a film depend on the content the filmmaker wishes to show, and the apparatus for displaying it: the zoetrope merely requires a series of images on a strip of paper.
Film production can, therefore, take as little as one person with a camera or even without a camera, as in Stan Brakhage 's film Mothlight , or thousands of actors, extras, and crew members for a live-action, feature-length epic. The necessary steps for almost any film can be boiled down to conception, planning, execution, revision, and distribution.
The more involved the production, the more significant each of the steps becomes. In a typical production cycle of a Hollywood-style film, these main stages are defined as development , pre-production , production , post-production and distribution. This production cycle usually takes three years. The first year is taken up with development. The second year comprises preproduction and production. The third year, post-production and distribution. The bigger the production, the more resources it takes, and the more important financing becomes; most feature films are artistic works from the creators' perspective e.
A film crew is a group of people hired by a film company, employed during the "production" or "photography" phase, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. Crew is distinguished from cast , who are the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film.
The crew interacts with but is also distinct from the production staff , consisting of producers, managers, company representatives, their assistants, and those whose primary responsibility falls in pre-production or post-production phases, such as screenwriters and film editors. Medium-to-large crews are generally divided into departments with well-defined hierarchies and standards for interaction and cooperation between the departments. Other than acting, the crew handles everything in the photography phase: props and costumes, shooting, sound, electrics i.
Caterers known in the film industry as "craft services" are usually not considered part of the crew. Film stock consists of transparent celluloid , acetate , or polyester base coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive chemicals. Cellulose nitrate was the first type of film base used to record motion pictures, but due to its flammability was eventually replaced by safer materials.
The soundtrack can be recorded separately from shooting the film, but for live-action pictures, many parts of the soundtrack are usually recorded simultaneously. As a medium, film is not limited to motion pictures, since the technology developed as the basis for photography. It can be used to present a progressive sequence of still images in the form of a slideshow.
Film has also been incorporated into multimedia presentations and often has importance as primary historical documentation. However, historic films have problems in terms of preservation and storage, and the motion picture industry is exploring many alternatives. Most films on cellulose nitrate base have been copied onto modern safety films. Digital methods have also been used to restore films, although their continued obsolescence cycle makes them as of a poor choice for long-term preservation.
Film preservation of decaying film stock is a matter of concern to both film historians and archivists and to companies interested in preserving their existing products in order to make them available to future generations and thereby increase revenue. Preservation is generally a higher concern for nitrate and single-strip color films, due to their high decay rates; black-and-white films on safety bases and color films preserved on Technicolor imbibition prints tend to keep up much better, assuming proper handling and storage.
Some films in recent decades have been recorded using analog video technology similar to that used in television production. Modern digital video cameras and digital projectors are gaining ground as well. These approaches are preferred by some film-makers, especially because footage shot with digital cinema can be evaluated and edited with non-linear editing systems NLE without waiting for the film stock to be processed.
The migration was gradual, and as of , most major motion pictures were still shot on film. Independent filmmaking often takes place outside Hollywood, or other major studio systems. An independent film or indie film is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major film studio. Creative, business and technological reasons have all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late 20th and early 21st century.
On the business side, the costs of big-budget studio films also lead to conservative choices in cast and crew. There is a trend in Hollywood towards co-financing over two-thirds of the films put out by Warner Bros. Also, the studios rarely produce films with unknown actors, particularly in lead roles. Before the advent of digital alternatives, the cost of professional film equipment and stock was also a hurdle to being able to produce, direct, or star in a traditional studio film.
But the advent of consumer camcorders in , and more importantly, the arrival of high-resolution digital video in the early s, have lowered the technology barrier to film production significantly. Both production and post-production costs have been significantly lowered; in the s, the hardware and software for post-production can be installed in a commodity-based personal computer.
Technologies such as DVDs , FireWire connections and a wide variety of professional and consumer-grade video editing software make film-making relatively affordable. Since the introduction of digital video DV technology, the means of production have become more democratized. Filmmakers can conceivably shoot a film with a digital video camera and edit the film, create and edit the sound and music, and mix the final cut on a high-end home computer.
However, while the means of production may be democratized, financing, distribution, and marketing remain difficult to accomplish outside the traditional system. Most independent filmmakers rely on film festivals to get their films noticed and sold for distribution. The arrival of internet-based video websites such as YouTube and Veoh has further changed the filmmaking landscape, enabling indie filmmakers to make their films available to the public. An open content film is much like an independent film, but it is produced through open collaborations; its source material is available under a license which is permissive enough to allow other parties to create fan fiction or derivative works, than a traditional copyright.
Like independent filmmaking, open source filmmaking takes place outside Hollywood, or other major studio systems. A fan film is a film or video inspired by a film, television program , comic book or a similar source, created by fans rather than by the source's copyright holders or creators. Fan filmmakers have traditionally been amateurs , but some of the most notable films have actually been produced by professional filmmakers as film school class projects or as demonstration reels.
Fan films vary tremendously in length, from short faux-teaser trailers for non-existent motion pictures to rarer full-length motion pictures. Film distribution is the process through which a film is made available for viewing by an audience. This is normally the task of a professional film distributor , who would determine the marketing strategy of the film, the media by which a film is to be exhibited or made available for viewing, and may set the release date and other matters.
The film may be exhibited directly to the public either through a movie theater historically the main way films were distributed or television for personal home viewing including on DVD-Video or Blu-ray Disc , video-on-demand , online downloading , television programs through broadcast syndication etc. Other ways of distributing a film include rental or personal purchase of the film in a variety of media and formats, such as VHS tape or DVD , or Internet downloading or streaming using a computer.
Animation is a technique in which each frame of a film is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit see claymation and stop motion , and then photographing the result with a special animation camera. When the frames are strung together and the resulting film is viewed at a speed of 16 or more frames per second, there is an illusion of continuous movement due to the phi phenomenon.
Generating such a film is very labor-intensive and tedious, though the development of computer animation has greatly sped up the process. Because animation is very time-consuming and often very expensive to produce, the majority of animation for TV and films comes from professional animation studios. However, the field of independent animation has existed at least since the s, with animation being produced by independent studios and sometimes by a single person.
Several independent animation producers have gone on to enter the professional animation industry. Limited animation is a way of increasing production and decreasing costs of animation by using "short cuts" in the animation process. This method was pioneered by UPA and popularized by Hanna-Barbera in the United States , and by Osamu Tezuka in Japan , and adapted by other studios as cartoons moved from movie theaters to television.
Camera-less animation, made famous by film-makers like Norman McLaren , Len Lye , and Stan Brakhage , is painted and drawn directly onto pieces of film, and then run through a projector. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the history and development of the motion picture. For the medium itself, see Photographic film.
For other uses, see Film disambiguation. Sequence of images that give the impression of movement. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. For other uses, see Movie disambiguation and Moving picture disambiguation.
Cinematography Principal photography Videography Shooting script Film inventory report Daily call sheet Production report Daily production report Daily progress report Daily editor log Sound report Cost report. Distribution Film release wide limited delayed. Related topics. Film history Filmography Guerrilla filmmaking. Glossary of motion picture terms.
Institutional Affiliation :. Thwaite, Alan. Archived from the original on 21 June Slothouber, Linda. Make sure to buy your groceries and daily needs Buy Now. A reproduction based on such is called a "transfer.
Main articles: History of film and History of film technology. Play media. Main article: Montage. Main article: Film criticism. Main article: Film industry. Further information: Film theory , Product placement , and Propaganda. Main article: Test screening. Main article: Film trailer. Main articles: Educational film and Propaganda film.
Main article: Filmmaking. Main article: Film crew. See also: Cinematic techniques. Main article: Independent film.
Screening Text: Critical Perspectives on Film Adaptation. Front Cover. Shannon Wells-Lassagne, Ariane Hudelet. McFarland, Feb 7, - Performing Arts. aravozodugol.tk: Screening Text: Critical Perspectives on Film Adaptation ( ): Shannon Wells-Lassagne, Ariane Hudelet: Books.
Hudelet, Ariane, Wells-Lassagne, Shannon, Introduction -- Setting the scene. This collection of essays covers various aspects of adaptation studies--questions of genre and myth, race and gender, readaptation, and pedagogical and practical approaches" A Look Inside Summaries. Main Description. Rather than limiting the cinema, as certain French New Wave critics feared, adaptation can give new inspiration to explore the possibilities of the intersection of text and film. This collection of essays covers various aspects of adaptation studie--questions of genre and myth, race and gender, readaptation, and pedagogical and practical approaches.
Rather than limiting the cinema, as certain French New Wave critics feared, adaptation has encouraged new inspiration to explore the possibilities of the intersection of text and film. This collection of essays covers various aspects of adaptation studies--questions of genre and myth, race and gender, readaptation, and pedagogical and practical approaches. This collection of essays covers various aspects of adaptation studies - questions of genre and myth, race and gender, readaptation, and pedagogical and practical approaches.
This information is provided by a service that aggregates data from review sources and other sources that are often consulted by libraries, and readers. The University does not edit this information and merely includes it as a convenience for users. It does not warrant that reviews are accurate.