Books by Language. The Society is international in character, having members throughout the world. Please quote Account No. In case of difficulty please contact the Hon. Secretary and Treasurer at the address above, or e-mail: otusscops talktalk. Articles should be preferably typewritten, with double spacing, and the scientific names as well as the vernacular names of birds should be given.
References cited in the text should be listed at the end of the article. Line drawings, black and white or colour photographs which illustrate a particular point in the article will be used where possible and should be clearly captioned. If authors wish their eventual return, they must say so when submitting the article and write their name on the back of each photograph.
Tables and graphs will also be used wherever possible but authors should be aware of the constraints of reproduction, particularly regarding the width of the page which is mm. E-mail: editor avisoc. A few years ago I realised there is another easy way to distinguish between the male and female adult Senegal Parrot. With the male, the green of the chest ends in a V-shaped pattern which barely reaches the abdomen 1 , whereas with the female the green extends down to the lower abdomen and between the legs.
If not removed just after hatching, the chicks invariably died when only one or two days old.
The Jewel Hunter (Princeton University Press (Wildguides)) by [Gooddie, Chris. Chris Gooddie. The Jewel Hunter (Princeton University Press (Wildguides)). A tale of one man's obsession with rainforest jewels, this is the story of an impossible The Jewel Hunter (Princeton University Press (Wildguides)) Paperback.
In February , however, much to my surprise there were seven birds in the flight and, on checking in the nest box, I discovered a further two chicks ready to fledge. During the following three or four weeks the group was kept under close observation from some distance, through a pair of binoculars, and on two occasions I witnessed one of the freshly fledged young, easily recognised by its almost completely green underparts, being fed by one of its siblings that had hatched the previous year. No doubt the presence of so many birds in the nest box during the cold winter nights when the temperature occasionally dropped to Considering the size of the nest box, which measured 18cm x 18cm Tin x Tin square, the young from and their parents, must have had to move around very cautiously, so as not to damage the eggs or trample on the freshly hatched chicks.
References Borrow, N. Field Guide to the Birds of Western Africa. Christopher Helm, London. Collar, N. Family Psittacidae. In:del Hoyo, L, Elliot, A. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 4 - Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Editions, Barcelona. Forshaw, J. Parrots of the World - An Identification Guide. Juniper, T. Parrots - A Guide to Parrots of the World. Pica Press, East Sussex. Silva, T. It would be interesting to hear from any members who keep and breed the Senegal Parrot, and also anyone who keeps and breeds the Hawk-headed Parrot Deroptcyus accipitrinus see Vol.
Indeed, my oldest bird, a Yellow-streaked Lory Chalcopsitta sintillata , which has now been with me for more than 35 years, originates from that decade. As Curator of Birds at Loro Parque, Tenerife, and Palmitos Park, Gran Canaria, during the late s and s, I was very fortunate to have in my care almost every species of lory in aviculture, excluding certain Australian species which were not permitted to be exported.
I have seen the popularity of lories and lorikeets in aviculture rise and fall like a big dipper. In the late s, when many species were imported commercially for the first time, they reached the height of popularity. However, in the late s and early s, when dealers brought in large numbers of wild-caught birds at low prices, many breeders sold up. The birds went to dealers who sold them abroad. Gradually the numbers in the UK fell to the low level of the current decade. In the early s, some zoos in the USA followed the example of San Diego Zoo and set up lorikeet exhibits where the public could feed the birds, which would descend onto their hands to take nectar from tiny pots.
The public bought this food and as a result the idea that money can be made from such exhibits gradually spread to the UK. Unfortunately, some of these leave a lot to be desired. It seems that lorikeets are being exploited - the commercial aspect apparently taking priority over proper management. As an example of good management, Paradise Park in Cornwall can hardly be bettered.
Indeed, staff from other lorikeet exhibits have visited Paradise Park to learn the correct method. This approach is to be recommended, especially if they act on what they have learned. Source of stock Quarantine methods There are some important lessons that need to be learned by any zoo that is considering opening a lorikeet exhibit. At Paradise Park, Curator David Woolcock had the good sense to set up pairs of Rainbow and Green-naped Lorikeets wel 1 in advance of the exhibit opening and to breed the required birds. Indeed, from the initial 10 Rainbow Lorikeets acquired from a UK breeder in , well over 60 young have been reared.
These young are used in the exhibit, not the breeding pairs. The disadvantage was that large numbers were not available initially. What other zoos have done when seeking to open a lorikeet exhibit is enquire about how many birds were available from UK breeders and. These birds had come from various collections. One zoo decided to euthanase all these birds. In the same quarantine space, however, there were at least eight birds from a reliable breeder in the UK. They were in perfect health, but they too were euthaeased.
The breeder was devastated to leam this. A zoo should know better than to bring in birds before another group has completed its quarantine.
At another UK zoo At another UK zoo, when several of its newly arrived birds tested positive for PBFD, it was decided to manage the flock as if it is in permanent quarantine. Keepers who look after these birds do not enter the aviaries of other birds, use foot dips at the entrance and change their boots and overalls when they clean out the lorikeet exhibit. It is to be hoped that none of these lorikeets will be allowed to leave the collection.
I suspect that even disease testing is not adequate to identify diseased birds that could unknowingly be sold, because it depends on birds shedding the virus at the time they are tested. Several lorikeets at this zoo died within the first two months and on autopsy were found to have the adenovirus. The risk involved in bringing in lorikeets that have not been blood tested for disease cannot be overstated. Refusal to buy birds that have not been disease-tested does at least send out a message to the seller that the disease risk is being taken seriously.
Feeding of lorikeets in zoo exhibits Another serious concern is that relating to the quality of food offered to the lorikeets. In one case, the manager of a lorikeet exhibit admitted that the birds were not in good feather and the breeding results were very poor. On enquiring about the food, I understood why. They were being fed a commercial product of inferior quality. Unfortunately, many lorikeets are fed this food because it is one of the least expensive and most readily available in the UK. Good quality lory foods are not cheap. At Paradise Park an excellent mixture is made from a variety of nutritious ingredients and the staff there will readily share the recipe with anyone who enquires.
Despite the disease problems, the poor feather condition of the birds and poor breeding results, the management of one lory exhibit was delighted because it had proved extremely profitable through the sale of pots of nectar. I would appeal to all zoos that keep these delightful birds in walk-through aviaries to consider the welfare of their lorikeets first. Some zoos are doing a great disservice to lory keeping in the UK and to aviculture in general by entrusting these birds to the care of inadequately trained staff who often do not understand their requirements and whose superiors have not taken the trouble to find out what these birds need.
Warning Lories and lorikeets are among the most aggressive birds and cannot normally be kept in a colony. The two subspecies mentioned are exceptions. Some zoos have, despite advice to the contrary, set up exhibits using several lory species - because it looks more colourful. This is irresponsible because it inevitably ends in deaths. One zoo claims that young birds of various species can be kept together. This is another myth because even young lorikeets will kill those of another species. It saddens me greatly at a time when the numbers of lories and lorikeets in aviculture are declining that they are misused in this way - to say nothing of terrified birds being hounded and attacked by others and fatally injured.
Conclusion Those considering opening lorikeet exhibits need to think long-term. The recommended procedure is to acquire young pairs and set them up for breeding - one pair per aviary - and use the young in the exhibit. These young birds will be much easier to train to take food from the public than birds often of unknown age acquired from a dealer. Even more importantly, this eliminates the risk of starting the exhibit with diseased birds. The sixth annual Lory Conference, which was organised by Rosemary and Ventura Events and held at Twycross Zoo in Warwickshire on June 12th, was attended by 51 enthusiasts and was a great success.
If you have any questions about keeping and breeding lories and lorikeets and, specifically about their diets, lam sure that Rosemary or David Woolcockwill be pleased to answer your questions. It inhabits primary forest, mist forest and woodland, and can also be found in mountainous regions up to l,m-2,m approx.
It is said to be quite common on Flores, but rare in other areas. It is usually found living alone, with the male and female coming together only during the breeding season, which is from August-early September, especially on Flores. I purchased my first pair of these thrushes in February I obtained the pair from Dave Armer in Preston and the following year succeeded in breeding this species. It was the first time that the Chestnut-backed Thrush had been bred in the UK. My account of the breeding along with a photo of an adult bird was published in Vol.
It is not an easy species to sex and DNA sexing is the most reliable way of ensuring that you have a true pair. Having kept a number of pairs of this species, however, and having since bred 26 young, I believe, I can now spot slight differences between the male and female. Males, I have noticed, are more brown than chestnut on the back. Females are larger and have more white on the belly, as well as being more chestnut on the back. I have heard it said by some breeders that nestlings can differ, with males being black and females being pink, but I have never noticed this.
There were not many Chestnut-backed Thrushes in the UK in There were just a few aviculturists mostly with single unpaired birds. Apparently, Dave Campbell had brought in several pairs in and, in , a small number were imported from a dealer in Germany.
Through my friend Bob Jewiss, I managed to obtain a further two birds to pair with those I had already bred. I later sold some of my birds to Bob Jewiss and also sold a pair to Jim Jerrard. The latter described his mixed fortunes breeding this species in Vol. One or two zoos and bird gardens had Chestnut- backed Thrushes, but were often uncertain as to the sex of their birds. Andrew Owen, when he was at Waddesdon Manor Aviary, bought two of the young I had bred, to pair with birds they had at Waddesdon.
These pairings were successful and further young were bred there and a Special Interest Group was established by Andrew, who collated breeding results and put breeders in contact with each other to arrange exchanges and pair-up single birds. There is now a healthy population of Chestnut-backed Thrushes in the UK and it is to be hoped that this thrush will continue to be bred and a long-term self-sustaining captive-breeding population will become firmly established.
Dove, C. Photographer Tim Laman is the first person to photograph all bird of paradise species and probably also the first person to see all species in the wild. The formation of the Special Interest Groups remains a great idea and such groups are crucial if we are going to build-up healthy, self-sustaining captive-breeding populations of as many species as possible. Pica Press, East Sussex. The young turaco was standing well by itself by now. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use.
There are a number of European breeders on the look-out for surplus birds. I am always getting phone calls from aviculturists wanting a male or female to make-up a new pair. It seems that every year there is a surplus of females and a shortage of males. The Chestnut-backed Thrash spends a lot of time on the ground and, in the wild, easily blends in with the leaf-litter.
It behaves not unlike a pitta, moving over the forest floor and only flying up onto a branch if it is disturbed. It is a peaceful bird by nature and can be housed with other species though not other thrushes even when it is breeding, so long as the aviary is large enough. For the best breeding results, however, each pair should be given an aviary to itself. My pairs go to nest about mid-March, or sometimes earlier. I had a friend whose birds bred in January, but this is not to be recommended.
I pair-up my birds in February, after having kept them apart during the winter months. I house each pair in a 9ft x 4ft x 6ft high approx. I place a nest box and a basket in each aviary. I use a parakeet nest box with part of the front cut away to turn it into a half-open-fronted nest box. This is placed high in a comer of the flight, well away from the door through which I feed the birds.
These are screened from view using plastic Boston Ferns, which I attach to the outside of the nest boxes and baskets. I always put the female in the breeding flight first and put the male in the flight in a show cage at the same time. However, if he is not steady enough in the show cage, I place him in an adjoining flight space permitting. I do not let him in with the female for at least a week. Usually, he then sings loudly and attempts to feed the female with livefood.
The female usually lays a clutch of up to three eggs but on the odd occasion, may lay as many as four eggs, however, often only two of these hatch. The incubation period is 15 days. The young leave the nest after about days, but it is several more days before they can fly and for about a week they hide among the undergrowth. Most of the 26 young bred by Gary, who lives in South Yorkshire, here in the UK, have gone to zoos and bird gardens, with several of them having gone to the Netherlands and Belgium. As the NatWest account has been closed, all future standing orders, subscriptions and other payments should be made to Barclays Bank Burnham- on Crouch Branch.
Please quote: Account No. Please ensure you include your name as the account reference otherwise we cannot match payments. Secretary and Treasurer whose details can be found on the inside of the front cover. All checks and money orders should be payable to The Avicultural Society. It was thought the doves might be vulnerable to the toxins being used Parrish, Although previous trips to the islands over an extended period had resulted in various counts ranging from no birds to just three birds, we hoped to capture birds over a period of 10 days.
One bird was caught by Richard Parrish and staff in Samoa in , which gave us hope that we might be able to catch enough birds to secure the population during the poison bait drop. At first light the following morning we headed out to keep an eye on the nets. We decided to split up, with Richard Parrish watching two nets and one of the authors G. As the latter approached the net, he saw a thrush-like bird take off and as he got closer realised there was a bird in the net. It was at ground level and as he stood for a moment watching, out of the grass on the forest floor a second ground dove appeared and walked into the net.
The two birds proved to be a pair and were quickly removed and placed in suspended holding cages.
These were the first of 17 Friendly Ground Doves caught over a period of 24 hours. Having been so successful, we decided to pack up and head back to base with them. At our second attempt a further nine birds were captured over a period of three days. We had therefore succeeded in capturing 26 Friendly Ground Doves. Captive husbandry The post capture holding cages consisted of a row of six cages each measuring 40cm x 40 cm x 90cm approx. The floor was 10mm not quite Vi in square weldmesh and the rest of the frame consisted of No. As it happened, most of the cages ended up with three birds in each of them for 24 hours.
Seed was placed in a wide but shallow dish and Omithon soluble vitamin supplement was added to the drinking water which was provided in hook-on bowls. Handfuls of soft leaf litter collected from the forest floor were placed on the wire base of each cage. The day after capture when we removed the birds from the cages to transport them to the mainland, by palpating their crops it was evident that some birds had begun to feed, but others did not appear to have eaten anything. As we had never imagined catching so many birds in such a short time, we had only eight bird bags.
We quickly rallied the troops and a few T-shirts and a wrap around skirt were sacrificed for the cause and, using string and makeshift needles for sewing, these were turned into additional bird bags. Once safely in the bags the birds were carefully placed on a bed of soft leaves in a large plastic container, with the lid slightly open, for the trip to the mainland in a small aluminium boat. Members of the same sex were housed together in groups of two or three birds.
Each box had shade cloth on the front to allow in light, a small handful of leaf litter on the floor and shallow bowls of food and water, as well as seed scattered on the floor to encourage feeding. The first group of birds captured was housed in these boxes for seven days - until work on the aviaries had been completed - and the second group was housed this way for four days. Confining wild-caught birds this way is a proven method of reducing losses due to stress.
Housing the birds in the boxes helped settle them into captivity and become accustomed to a captive diet, etc. It worked in the following ways: 1. By keeping the lights on for 24 hours on each of the first two days and food and water close by we encouraged the birds to feed on the diet provided.
Twelve internal flights were created within this structure, using timber framing covered with square mesh welded wire to rat-proof the flights and with the ceiling and walls lined with shade cloth to prevent the birds injuring themselves. A corridor, with six flights on either side, enabled each flight to be easily serviced. A light was set up in the corridor to provide a little extra light during the day, as there was very little natural light on the more shaded side of the aviary.
Each flight measured approximately 0. Each flight had a thin layer of fine gravel on the floor, covered initially with a thin layer of leaf litter to make it easier for the birds to find the seed that had been scattered on the ground. Perches were placed at a variety of heights at either end and in the middle of the flights, so that the birds had at least two to three perches to move between. Fresh coconut palm fronds were placed at the two ends and a few fronds were attached to the sides to provide cover for the birds and avoid them flying into the ends in panic.
Later, tarpaulins were put up around the outside of the aviaries to block the birds" view of people walking nearby. The doves seemed to get most stressed by movement and the tarpaulins made an immediate difference to the amount of flapping around the birds did when people were nearby. Feeding and servicing So as not to stress the birds unduly, the amount of time and the number of people entering the aviaries were kept to a minimum.
Fortunately, we had on record an article by Dieter Rinke who had bred this species many years previously in Tonga and who referred to them being happy to eat a a seed mix suitable for Diamond Doves. We offered our birds a mixture containing white and Japanese millets, buckwheat and sorghum. Twice a week the birds were given the vitamin and mineral supplement Omithon in their drinking water at the rate of two small scoops 4g per litre 0. It was also added to the water when the birds were particularly stressed such as, for example, after being handled and moved into the aviaries.
The leaf litter was replaced twice during the period of captivity and fresh leaf litter and invertebrates were provided. The males, when captured, weighed on average These figures do not include the birds that died. Three birds became sick during the first two weeks in the holding aviaries. In each case the bird was found fluffed up, it was moving around less than the other birds and was sometimes sitting on the floor of the aviary.
One bird had faecal matter around its cloaca. The sick birds were removed from the aviary and placed in the cardboard boxes in which they had previously been housed and were kept in the office with a lamp shining in day and night. Food was scattered on the floor and was also placed in a small dish and water was provided in a D-cup bowl. All three birds were crop-fed 4mls-5mls of a glucose and antibiotic solution. One that was underweight also received a liquid food supplement ProNutra - a complete breakfast cereal formula and a little added glucose. The bird that had faecal matter around its cloaca was carefully cleaned to prevent a blockage.
Each of the sick birds died within 24 hours of being found unwell. Necropsy indicated that the first bird had a high burden of worm eggs and that all three had likely died as a result of stress and not feeding adequately. A banding ringing mishap on September 7th led to the death of the fourth bird. Release On September 7th the birds were caught using a hand net. They were checked for injuries, weighed and measured and most of the unbanded birds were banded ringed. By midday all of the birds had been placed in cardboard cat boxes ready for transportation.
Cardboard divisions were used to divide each of the boxes into four compartments and the floor was lined with a mat of brown fibrous palm material. Each compartment was just large enough for a dove to perch comfortably - probably without being able to turn around easily.
On arrival back on the island each bird was removed from its box and quickly checked for injuries which may have occurred during transportation there were none. The doves were then released from the hand into the area of forest from which most of them were captured. All flew off strongly into the canopy. However, had the birds been held in captivity for much longer, hygiene may have become an issue.
Because the birds panicked so much when anyone entered the confined space, it was difficult to clean the aviaries and the need to maintain hygiene standards had to be balanced against the stress caused to the birds. For the same reason it was not possible to observe the birds closely to check for signs of aggression and whether or not they were feeding properly, etc. If a similar project was to occur in the future, ideally each flight in the holding aviary should be larger so that vegetation can be provided amongst which the birds can hide and gain greater security and, hopefully, reduce the stress levels.
The vegetation should be replaced regularly to prevent a build up of faecal matter and mould, which should not be too difficult if there is enough space in the flights for the birds to retreat to while this is happening. Reference Parrish, R. E-mail :rcollen doc. E-mail: bronwynmcculloch hotmail. E-mail :Glen-nat hotmail. A high rate of mortality has been recorded among infected flocks. Strains of paramyxovirus are generally capable of infecting other avian species, but at this stage the disease has only been detected in pigeons.
It measures between 70cmcm approx. It has a stout body with quite short and rounded wings and a long tail The plumage is predominantly blue. Both sexes look identical in coloration and this remains so throughout the year. This species lives in sub-Saharan Africa, where it inhabits montane rainforest and gallery forest forest bordering rivers and streams from sea level up to about 2,m approx. Almost from the moment they met they have displayed and called to each other and now have a very strong pair bond.
As soon as we provided them with a nesting place they began to gather flimsy sticks and broad-leafed plants to build a nest. We tried several different types of nesting places, all of them large platforms with a raised edge or lip to prevent twigs falling off and with various types of nesting substrate, such as wood shavings, sand and hessian sacking. The birds would build a nest and the female would even occasionally lay on these platforms, but after a few days the birds would abandon the eggs.
It was thought that the nests they were building were too flimsy and were falling apart. We then managed to purchase some very large wicker baskets one of which we placed in the same area on the existing platform inside the shelter and we placed another basket outside in a sheltered position. The birds took to these very quickly and even if the flimsy nest consisted of only a handful of twigs they would happily sit on it, lay eggs and incubate them.
The first clutch of two eggs was abandoned only three to four days before the eggs were due to hatch. On inspection, the eggs were found to be fully formed and contained what looked to be healthy chicks. The birds laid a second clutch, both eggs of which were fertile, but the same thing happened again. The next clutch of eggs that was laid was removed after the second egg was laid and the eggs were artificially incubated in a Grumbach incubator.
One of the eggs proved to be infertile, but the other egg was fertile and the moment the external pip began, the egg was placed under a brooding pair of White-cheeked Turacos Tauraco leucotis. We had successfully used this pair of turacos as foster parents many times before to rear other turaco chicks. Initially the pair seemed to be rearing the chick successfully, but by the sixth day it had died.
It is thought that the size of the rapidly growing chick and its demand for food, were just too much for the foster parents, who simply could not keep up with it. Following this set back we again gave the Great Blue Turacos the opportunity to incubate their own eggs and rear the young themselves, in the hope that they just needed more practise in doing this. Finally, in late , our first chick hatched under the female turaco. This breeding attempt was monitored via cameras which we had set up to observe the nest without needing to disturb the turacos. We could easily observe the nest and see exactly what was happening.
The female seemed very attentive and appeared to be trying to feed the chick. The following day, however, it was obvious that something was wrong. Upon closer investigation, we discovered that, unfortunately, the chick had died. Reluctantly we all agreed that hand-rearing was our most realistic option and despite the difficulties we were likely to encounter, thought we had little to lose. Before embarking on a hand-rearing attempt, we carefully researched all available protocols for hand-rearing this species and after careful consideration decided to adopt the protocol developed at San Diego Zoo in California.
We already had good links with staff there, namely Pat Witman and Clancy Hall, and I, together with a colleague at Paradise Park, had been fortunate enough to visit the zoo in November During the winter months all our turacos are locked in their heated shelters overnight. Because of the extremely cold and prolonged winter in , we took the decision to prevent the female from continuing to lay and thereby risk egg binding, by shutting the male and female in separate shelters at night and allowing them individual access to the main enclosure during the day, with each bird taking turns outside.
Once winter had almost passed, they were once again let out into the main enclosure together during the day whilst still being locked away at night for extra warmth. They immediately began calling and copulation was frequently observed. Within days the female laid an egg in her shelter. This egg was removed for artificial incubation. It was followed a day later by the external pip and then finally on the morning of February 11th the chick had hatched. It weighed We then followed the hand-rearing protocol given to us by staff at San Diego Zoo and used it as a guide to what to feed the chick and when.
This protocol had been used to successfully rear chicks there in , and but, unfortunately, since then it had not been successful. After the chick hatched we waited six hours for the begging response to begin before feeding it. We gave it only a Dioralyte solution for the first two feeds using a syringe , then a mixture of Kaytee Rainbox Exact parrot food soaked in a Dioralyte solution until it was completely hydrated and soft. This can be kept refrigerated for 24 hours before being discarded.
However, I always placed the food in a metal dish sitting in warm water to take the chill off the food before feeding it to the chick. I used a pair of tweezers and tore off small chunks of Kaytee to feed to the chick, which took it readily. I always removed the chick from the bowl in the brooder see below when feeding it, as it was easier to feed it on a flat surface. I would feed the chick until it no longer wanted any more food.
I was very surprised by the amount of food such a small chick consumed at one sitting. On the first day it did not produce any faeces even though we stimulated the cloaca. The first faeces were passed on the second day. It was necessary to stimulate the cloaca only until the third day after which, without any stimulation, the chick would defecate after every meal.
The chick was fed every two hours from Pittas are predominantly terrestrial birds found in Asia, Africa, and Australia. They are undeniably odd looking — they have a stout, almost tailless, body mounted on long legs. Most species are decorated with some surprisingly vivid colors. As Gooddie puts it:.
And they must have really made an impression on our author. Looking back on seeing his first pitta, he writes:. After that realization, Gooddie quits his job, risks alienating his non-birding girlfriend, and goes out in search of pittas. Sound glamorous? While it sounds like a great idea, you might want to hear some details first. I love birding adventure stories, but this one truly deserves to be labelled an adventure. Some of the conditions the author endured would have made Attu seem like a spa vacation.
Here are but a few examples:. Who knew searching for pittas was such a thrilling read dangerous endeavor? But for every night spent without even the basic comforts or every dangerous situation like being stalked by a leopard, Gooddie also saw some amazing things. He observed birds, not just pittas, rarely seen by birders or ornithologists. He documented birds in places they had never been seen before, and possibly even photographed some in the field for the first time. His quest may have been extreme, possibly even insane, but it came across in a very relatable manner.
These show some of the birds he saw, as well as places he birded and people he birded with. Category: Miscellaneous. No Ratings Yet. Name required.