His conclusion was that, for his Ivy Bridge CPU at least, the height of the heatspreader above the die was actually the cause for concern, with the heatspreader adhesive actually raising the heatspreader too far off the die, meaning that the gap was larger than expected and the TIM could not work properly. In fact, his conclusion is that the TIM is perfectly fine, but this gap is causing the issue.
The fact that it says polymer is a big clue that we are dealing with a silicone based TIM. These silicone based TIMs often hold a suspension of ceramic powders, which can also affect the thermal conductivity by a factor of x. The movement from a zinc-oxide filler to an aluminium based filler would offer a 2x improvement in thermal conductivity for the minor added expense, as well as cause a color change combined with a viscosity change. Comparing the iK to the iK, aside from the increase in internal capacitors again, for power regulation , the TIM has changed more from a silver material to a whiter material, similar to that of the K.
The cynic in me would suggest a movement to a zinc-based ceramic filler, given that zinc is a d 10 metal 10 electrons in its outer shell and forms an extremely white powder when in the zinc oxide form, so much so that it is added to paints as a white pigment similarly to titanium dioxide. However aluminium oxide is also white, and has a much higher thermal conductivity than zinc oxide when used in a thermal interface material matrix quoted as 30 W m -1 K The viscosity would be dependent on the size of the nanoparticles used against the matrix itself, but one could argue that the aluminum based TIM should be slightly more expensive than the zinc based TIM.
It is worth noting that the black IHS adhesive is still present, in what looks like similar quantities. The big news in the specifications is that the iK is clocked much higher than was previously expected. The iK, its predecessor, was rated at a 3. The new iK will come with a 4.
Here we move from a 3. The CPUs still use the LGA socket, meaning compatibility with 9-series motherboards and most 8-series motherboards when the motherboard manufacturers release relevant updates for 8-series. We suggest that if you intend to purchase an 8-series motherboard with one of these CPUs that you contact your retailer ahead of time to confirm BIOS versions.
The increase in frequency for the top end i7 puts more distance in terms of CPU performance between that and the i5, which judging by the price difference might be significant, especially for prosumers that are CPU-bound. Things are less clear in the gaming arena, although we have tested both CPUs as well as with overclocks to see how they pan out. Other reviews on these processors have had a hard time hitting 5. In order to even discuss this, we first have to look at the silicon itself.
All arrows point to an unchanged silicon die, but an updated package, which would suggest that the overclocking performance of these new processors might match the old, but with more thermal headroom. Although one could also suggest that Intel has optimized the process in the fab to enable a different distribution of bin yields, especially when considering the new 4. This would arguably put some positive note on the i7, given that there were some rather poor overclocking iKs in the wild and the iK seems to raise that minimum barrier by default.
Without having a couple of hundred CPUs to test, we cannot produce a histogram of expected overclocking results. However I can add in our results here, with a clearer explanation later in the review. Our iK is actually one of the lower performing CPUs from what I have heard from other reviewers. That jump from 4. The iK sample we received by contrast was a relatively nice clocker, but it still had a bit of a voltage leap in the same sort of range.
The system would boot very easily above 1. Our G Overclockable Pentium also does 4. A contact at Corsair has two iKs, both of which do 4. Two of our contacts at ASUS have got 4. It would seem 4. For the users that rely on one-button overclocking, or automatic overclocking selecting High-OC , motherboard manufacturers will have to ensure that their look-up tables encoded into the BIOS are updated appropriately.
In this circumstance, the iK becomes an interesting prospect. Moving from 3. The turbo frequencies also gain that jump as well, from 3. In essence what we have here is a performance jump to what we see in the tick-tock scale, albeit at the expense of power. By that cadence, we should be expecting Broadwell, the change from 22nm to 14nm, in the October timeframe. There is no exact date for the official release, and for the announcement no desktop parts were mentioned and thus it is still unclear when the full desktop parts will be available to end-users.
In it was debated if Intel would be bringing Broadwell to a socketed desktop platform, although that was quashed when in May Intel announced it would be releasing an overclocking SKU with the next version of Iris Pro for Broadwell, suggesting that a full range of desktop parts with IGPs would be coming to market.
Different sources will claim different times for the release, either alongside Core-M or later in The question then becomes if Intel will release the equivalent of an iK with Broadwell, integrating any IPC increase with a frequency to succeed the iK. There has also been a suggestion that Broadwell-DT will only focus on the integrated graphics, and leave performance for either the extreme platform Haswell-E or the generation after, Skylake.
The release of Skylake is even more a mystery. I want to inject a little of the conclusion here, beyond the overclock results above. The increase in single core frequency was noticeable during our testing, even for basic tasks, and moreso than the movement from Ivy Bridge to Haswell in the first place. I have taken a section of pure CPU benchmark results and done a comparison between the iK, iK and iK:. Judge C. Magney State Park is a state park in the U. It was named for Clarence R.
Magney , a former mayor of Duluth and justice of the Minnesota Supreme Court , who was instrumental in getting 11 state parks and scenic waysides established along the North Shore. Mons Creek, an intermittent stream on the park's northeast border, drains a small marsh. The state park is entirely within Grand Portage State Forest , although most of the land directly adjacent to the park is privately owned inholdings.
The park is underlain by alternating layers of basalt and rhyolite , which were erupted from the Midcontinent Rift System 1. These layers bear intrusions of gabbro and diabase in the north and ferrodiorite in the south near the lakeshore.
From 2 million years ago to 10, years ago a series of glacial periods repeatedly covered the region with ice, scouring the bedrock and scooping out the accumulated rock in the great basin. As the glaciers began to melt at the end of the last glacial period , pockets of rock and dirt till were left behind while the basin filled with meltwater, forming glacial Lake Duluth. A layer of red sediment with clay minerals remains from this time on flat, inland areas of the park. The changing configuration of the receding glaciers, plus post-glacial rebound of the surrounding land, altered the depth and area of the glacial Great Lakes.
The succession of lake levels left a series of beach ridges , wave-cut bluffs, and terraces at several elevations. Magney State Park is the only park bearing the complete series from the high water of Glacial Lake Duluth to the level of Glacial Lake Nipissing just above the current Superior shore.
Several former stream beds and deltas can be identified at the southern end of the park. The campground sits on a delta, and a former stream bed lies directly opposite the park entrance.
For decades there was no satisfactory geological explanation for the Devil's Kettle, and it was a popular regional mystery. Although lava tubes can form in certain igneous rock , they can't appear in rhyolite, and the underlying basalt is both too deep and not formed in the proper volcanic conditions for tubes.
The area is not known to contain any faults , and even if it did it wouldn't be permeable enough to drain half the river. However, experiments conducted in late fall and announced by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources DNR in February strongly indicated that the disappearing water simply flows back into the Brule River shortly below the falls.
At the suggestion of state hydrologist Jeff Green, two DNR experts measured the water flow above the falls and several hundred feet below them.
The two readings were virtually identical, suggesting no water was being lost to some other outlet. They were discouraged from doing so by park management and decided that the dye experiment was not scientifically necessary to confirm that the water simply rejoins the river below the falls.
Magney State Park supports a wide variety of flora and fauna.
Before European settlement the Brule River Valley would have been forested mostly with white pine. Extensive logging and forest fires have altered the park's vegetation significantly, except around the rocky and inaccessible ridgetops. Today's secondary forest is dominated by aspen and birch, with stands of white spruce, sugar maple, and basswood.
There are a few remnant stands of white pine on hilltops and ravines, especially along Gauthier Creek. The large mammals found in the park, particularly in the remote northern section, are white-tailed deer , moose , black bears , red foxes , and timber wolves. Smaller mammals include groundhogs , red squirrels , eastern chipmunks , martens , and snowshoe hares. Several species of warblers nest in the park. White-tailed deer are not endemic to northern Minnesota, having expanded into the region to take advantage of the plant regrowth during the logging period.
In the s and s there were as many as deer per square mile. The population has dropped as the forest has matured, but the deer still pose a management challenge as they overgraze young trees of certain species, over time altering the composition of the forest. The name likely refers to an early forest fire , and fires played a significant role in the park's early history. A series of fires in northern Wisconsin in to forced lumber companies to abandon that area and cross Lake Superior to begin logging the North Shore even though the quality of the timber was lower.
The Red Cliff Lumber Company was headquartered a few miles west of the Brule River, and much of the future park was logged at this time. However logging practices of the day foreshortened the harvest of North Shore timber too, as slash left on the ground for several dry years fueled a devastating fire in Droughts and fires bedeviled the North Shore for the next 30 years. The slowly regenerating Brule Valley very nearly became an exclusive resort for the wealthy, as entrepreneurs from Duluth formed the Naniboujou Club and planned a luxurious lakeside complex with a room lodge, cabins, bathhouses, tennis courts, a golf course, and a swimming pool, all powered by a hydroelectric dam on the Brule.
The rest of the complex was never built, and the lodge went through a succession of owners and periods of closure. Instead of wealthy families, the next residents of the future park were homeless men. At first it was managed by the state's Division of Forestry and named the Grover Conzet Camp after their director, but at the end of it was transferred to the federal Works Progress Administration. After the fire they built a sawmill and salvaged some of the downed wood.
Despite these benefits a visiting timber union leader managed to foment a rebellion in February in which the administrators were briefly ejected from camp before state and local officials restored order.
staging.smilecaresavingsplan.com/dexoq-1998-polaris-6x6.php Indian Service converted the facility into a camp for Ojibwe youth. The next year the park was renamed in his honor, and in Judge C. In a trail was added on the west bank of the river. Amenities are confined to the southern third of Judge C.
Magney State Park. The summer-only campground has 27 sites and a sanitation building with flush toilets and showers.
Marty Allen and his sister, Karen, along with their young Uncle, Brian Forbes, explore the mysterious Devil's Canyon together, and, after a series of mishaps, find. Marty Allen and his sister, Karen, along with their young Uncle, Brian Forbes, explore the mysterious Devils Canyon together, and, after a series of mishaps, find.
The Brule River is popular for its fishing opportunities, as the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources has been stocking it with rainbow trout since